1:2-3   warning by YHVH through the prophet of coming global destruction against man and animals
1:4-13   warning of God against Judah – against the remnant group within Israel
   1:6 (Heb 10:38-39)   warning of judgment against those amongst God’s people who “turn back from following YHVH. . . .”
   1:7 (Rev 8:1)   command to be silent before the Sovereign YHVH because the Day of YHVH is near
   1:12 (Rev 3:15-17)   At that time God will judge those who are complacent, who say in their heart, “YHVH will do neither good nor bad”.
1:14-18   the great Day of YHVH
   1:14 (Mt 24:36-44; Ja 5:7-8; Rev 22:20)   near and coming quickly
   1:15 (Amos 5:18-20;  Lk 21:22-28; Rev 6:12-17)   a day of wrath and anguish, of trouble and ruin, darkness, gloom, clouds, blackness
   1:16 (Rev 8:13)   a day of trumpet and battle cry
   1:17 (2Thes 2:11)   God will bring distress and blindness on man because they have sinned against YHVH
   1:18 (Mt 3:11; Heb 12:25-29)   the world will be consumed in the fire of God’s jealousy

2:1-3 (Ezek 36:27; Mt 5:5)   gather together and seek God’s mercy; Seek YHVH, you meek of the land!
2:4-15 (Is ch.14 – ch. 21)   judgments against the nations

3:1-8   righteous judgment against Jerusalem – her rulers, prophets, priests who sin without shame against YHVH and His righteousness; [there is no fear of God]
3:9   afterwards the restoration of the remnant, and of a pure language that they may all call upon the Name of YHVH, and serve Him in unity
3:10   Gentiles will worship YHVH God in Jerusalem
3:11   Jerusalem will be purged of the proud and rebellious forever!
3:12 (Mt 5:5)   The meek and humble will be delivered
3:13 (Rev 14:1-5; 1Jn 2:22; Jn 1:47; Lk 2:68-75)   The remnant of Israel will do no wrong, speak no lies, will have no deceit in their mouths, and will live in peace and security without fear.
3:14-20   God will make Jerusalem and Israel a praise unto Him and among all the peoples of the Earth before their eyes.


1:1-6   repent and believe the Word of YHVH; brings self-judgment of God’s righteousness

2:12-17 [8-13 Eng]   God’s judgment against nations who have plundered Israel will be evidence that YHVH of Hosts has sent YHVH of Hosts!; many gentiles will be joined to Him in that day; He will inherit Judah and Jerusalem, and come out from His holy dwelling.

3:1 (Num 25:10-13)   Joshua the High Priest is a descendant of Phineas, with whom God covenanted an everlasting priesthood.
3:3 (Jude 23)   Even the High Priest was clothed in filthy garments, whose iniquity needed to be purged and removed before pure garments could be placed upon him.
3:8-10   Joshua and his friends are a “sign of things to come”; YHVH says He will bring His servant, the Branch (tzemach/Plant), who will bring cleansing to the land in one day and bring peace and security under the vine and fig tree in that day. Continue reading “ZECHARIAH (520 BC)”

OBADIAH (~840 or 587 BC)

Edom is Esau, who always has acted with hatred and murderous bitterness towards his brother Jacob/Israel (Gen 27:41).  Edom represents those nations and people acting in the flesh against YHVH God’s sovereignty and choice.

Edom’s spirit:

v. 10   Edom’s violence against his brother Jacob
           —Gen 27:39-41   intifada; Esau’s murderous grudge against his brother, Jacob
           —Gen 33   Jacob/Israel meets Esau, and seeks favor in his eyes; not true reconciliation, especially regarding the land
           —Num 20:14-21   Edom refused to give his brother Israel (the people) passage on their way to Canaan, the Promised Land of Inheritance
           —Ezek 35 – 36:5   YHVH God against Seir and Edom because of their perpetual hatred against the children of Israel

v. 11   Edom stood by while Jerusalem was invaded
v. 12   Edom gazed and rejoiced over the sons of Judah in the day of his captivity, the day of their destruction, and spoke proudly in the day of distress

v. 13   Edom actively participated in the sacking of Jerusalem in the day of their calamity while gazing at their affliction
v. 14   Edom helped set up roadblocks to prevent the escape of their brothers in the day of distress

v. 15   Edom will be destroyed on the Day of YHVH

v. 17   But the remnant of the house of Jacob will be holy and will possess their possessions

v. 21 (Ezek 48:35; Joel 4:21 [3:21Eng])   The Kingdom will be YHVH’s!

NAHUM (664 – 612 BC)

1:2-3   YHVH is a jealous and avenging God who, though not quickly, will punish the guilty
1:6 (Rev 6:17)   no one can endure His wrath
1:9   evil will be brought to an end by YHVH God
1:11 (Nah 3:18; Ezek 38:17; Mic 5:4-5 [5-6 Eng]; 2Thes 2:3-4)   the Assyrian (antichrist?); the one who plots evil against YHVH and counsels wickedness

2:1 [1:15 Eng] (Lk 1:73-75)   millennial blessing of celebration without fear  

MICAH (742 – 687 BC)

1:2   a prophetic call for all peoples and the Earth to hear YHVH witness against them from His holy Temple
1:3   YHVH goes out from His place and comes down to the Land of Israel and to the Earth
1:4   earthquakes at His visitation
1:5   because of the sins of His people
1:6   judgment and destruction because of idolatry and sin
1:8   weeping and mourning from those who serve the Lord

2:1   woe to those who plan evil
2:3   YHVH plans disaster against them; the proud will be abased
2:4   in that day. . .the land will be divided
2:6 (2Tim 4:2-4)   the people of God do not want to hear His prophets
2:11 (1Tim 4:1-2)   they believe in lies and doctrines of demons
2:12-13   YHVH will gather and save His remnant of Israel and He will break through and go out before them

3:1   judgment against haters of good and lovers of evil
3:4 (Is 53:3; Jn 16:7-11)   YHVH will not answer their cries and will hide His face from them

4:1-8 (Is 2:3-5; Hos 2:20 [18 Eng]; Rev 14:1-5)   In the last days, the Millennial reign of Messiah will restore the kingdom to Jerusalem and to Israel.  YHVH will be acknowledged as God; gentiles will come to the house of the God of Jacob; God’s Law will be in force; no more war; peace and security
4:11-13   Armageddon; God’s plan

5:1 [2 Eng]   the Ruler over Israel will be born (first coming of Yeshua) in Bethlehem, and His goings forth are from of old, from everlasting
5:2-3 [3-4 Eng](Mt 24:8)   Israel will be given up until the time that she who is in labor has given birth, and the rest of His [the Messiah who will be the Ruler] brethren shall return to the children of Israel
5:4 [5 Eng](Nah 3:18)   the Assyrian (the antichrist?)
5:9-13 [10-14 Eng]   in that day (second coming of Christ), YHVH will remove all idolatry from Israel
5:14 [15 Eng]   YHVH will take vengeance in anger against all those nations that have not obeyed Him

6:1-16   YHVH’s justification for judging Israel as a nation

7:4b-7 (Mt 10:34-37)   tribulation and anguish of soul; hope for those who trust in God for salvation
7:8-17   Israel will rise again to glory; her judgments are righteous; her enemies will see and be covered with shame, those who questioned the faithfulness and power of YHVH God of Israel.
7:18-20 (Lk 1:68-75)   There is no God like YHVH; He will fulfill His oath to our fathers from long ago


2:7-8 (Rev 2:1)   The priest is the messenger of YHVH of Hosts, and is reproved for false teaching of God’s Law and ways.
2:14-16 (Mk 10:2-12)   Marriage is given for the purpose of giving God children; God hates divorce as being betrayal to a covenant oath of fidelity.  (What is an infidel?)

3:1   The messenger (John the Baptizer) was sent to prepare the first coming of the Lord.
3:2 (Mt 3:11; Lk 21:26; Rev 6:17)   Who can stand when the Lord appears to purge and cleanse?!
3:3 (Ezek 44)   The Levites will be purified to offer sacrifices in righteousness unto YHVH, as in times past.
3:6-7 (Gen 28:15)   YHVH does not change, which ensures Jacob’s survival and inheritance; return to YHVH and He will return to you
3:16-18 (Mt 25:31-46; Rev 22:10-11)   Those who fear the LORD will speak with each other, and YHVH listens and hears.  He will write their names in a scroll of remembrance.  The distinction between the righteous and the wicked, those who serve God and those who do not will be manifest in that day.

3:19-20 [4:1-2 Eng]   The Day of YHVH is surely coming:  bad news for the arrogant and evil-doer; good news of healing for those who fear His Name.
3:22 [4:4 Eng](Lk 16:29-31)  Remember the Law of Moses (not the oral law!):  for Israel’s conviction of sin, and testimony of sacrifices for sin in God’s love and compassion, and the promise of one coming greater than Moses
3:23-24 [4:5-6 Eng](Mk 9:11-12; Lk 1:17; Jn 1:21; Rev 11:1-13)   Elijah coming before the second coming.  He will restore family and historic bonds of love amongst God’s people.  Israel, the land, and the Earth are under the curse until Israel’s national repentance.

JONAH (760 BC)

Where was Jonah born?. . . . . . . . . . . . . in Gat-HaHepher (winepress of the digging)
Where is Gat-HaHefer?. . . . . . . . . . . . . .in lower Galilee, near to and north-east of Nazareth, in the portion of the Tribe of Zebulon (Josh 19:13; 2Kg 14:25)
What did the Pharisees insist when Nicodemus tried to defend Yeshua against illegal condemnation?. . . . . . .John 7:52

What book from the Bible is read in the synagogues on the Day of Atonements?. . . . . . . . .Jonah!
What did Yeshua answer to the Scribes, Pharisees, Sadducess, and to the people who demanded to see a sign from Him?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Mt 12:38-41; 16:1-4; Lk 11:29-32; Jonah 1:16 [17 Eng]
       —What are some of the different aspects of this “sign of the prophet Jonah”?
        –both Jonah and Jesus grew up in an obscure village in Galilee
        —3 days and 3 nights in death before being brought forth out from the fish and out from the earth
           –Israel also to be afflicted for two days and on the third day to be revived (Hos 6:1-2)
        —preaching repentance in mercy to gentiles, even to enemies:  evangelism and missionary calling to be a light for the nations (Is 49:6)
        —sovereignty of God of Israel over all nations and peoples—for the Jews and for the gentiles
           –“God has appointed a day on which He will judge the world in righteousness by the Man whom He has ordained.  He has given assurance of this to all by raising Him from the dead.” (Acts 17:31)
           –both Jonah and Israel will obey YHVH, even if against their own will and
        –all of us will learn what Jonah knew, but did not live by as God’s prophetic witness:  that YHVH is gracious and compassionate, slow to anger and abounding in lovingkindness, a God who relents from sending calamity (4:2)YHVH even cares about the animals. (4:11)

Not our will but God’s will be done; His kingdom come; His Name be sanctified!  (Ezek 36:22-23; Mt 6:9-10; 26:36-44)

Nineveh did repent at the preaching of Jonah – from the greatest to the least – an entire city!  Many years later (~140 years), Nineveh was judged and destroyed by the Medes and Babylonians, as prophesied by Nahum and Zephaniah.

Messiah Yeshua — greater than Jonah — is here!  

JOEL (810 – 750 BC)

Joel 1 & 2 – – – – – – – Read Revelation 6 & 9

2:2 (Jer 30:7; Dan 12:1; Mt 24:21)   a unique period in human history:  unprecedented, and never to be like it again

Again a call to repentance from the heart, confession of sin, God’s healing and blessing

3:1-5 [2:28-32Eng] (Mt 24:29-30; Rev 6:12)   After this; after the tribulation of those days

4:1-2[3:1-2 Eng]   restoration of Israel; judgment of nations in Jerusalem, in Valley of Jehoshaphat

4:17-21 [3:17-21 Eng] (Ezek 48:35; Lk 21:24)   YHVH will dwell in Zion, His holy hill; and Jerusalem will be holy, never again to be trampled under foot by the gentiles

HOSEA (~760 – 722 BC)

1:6 (Acts 17:30-31)   a daughter named Lo-Ruchama, for YHVH will no longer show mercy to Israel to forgive them

1:7 (Zech 4:6; Mt 1:21)   Judah to be saved – not by bow, sword or battle, but by YHVH their God

2:1 [1:10 Eng] (1Pt 2:9-10)   In the place where it was said to them, ‘You are not My people’, they will be called sons of the living God, who is God both of the Jews and of the Gentiles.  Continue reading “HOSEA (~760 – 722 BC)”


2:1   The Word of YHVH came through Haggai the prophet on the 21st of the 7th month, i.e., near the end of Succot (the Feast of Booths), the last of the appointed times of YHVH to Israel, and the beginning of the “new year”, with God revealed and dwelling in the midst of His people.

2:2 (Lk 3:23-38)   Zerubbabel is a descendant of King David, through his son Nathan, by whom Messiah came in the flesh.  Joshua is a descendant of Phineas the High Priest, son of Eleazar, son of Aaron.

2:6-9 (Heb 12:25-27; Mt 12:6; Jn 2:18-21;  2Cor 3:7-12)   “In a little while”, God is going to shake heaven and earth and all nations, and they will come to the Desire of All Nations.  The glory of the latter house shall be greater than the former, and the LORD will give peace.

2:10   the Word of YHVH came through Haggai on the 24th of the 9th month, i.e., the date that would become the evening of the Feast of Dedication (Hanukkah) and, later, of the birth of Messiah our Lord.

2:18-19 (Lk 2:11-14)   Consider now from this day forward, from the 24th day of the 9th month, from the day that the foundation of YHVH’s Temple was laid – consider it:  . . .from this day I will bless.

2:20-23   And again the Word of YHVH came to Haggai on the 24th of the month, saying, “Speak to Zerubbabel, governor of Judah, saying: ‘I will shake heaven and earth.  I will overthrow the throne of kingdoms; I will destroy the strength of the gentile kingdoms’. . . . ‘In that day’, says YHVH of Hosts, ‘I will take you, Zerubbabel My servant, the son of Shealtiel,’ says YHVH, ‘and will make you like a signet, for I have chosen you,’ says YHVH of Hosts.”
(Zerubbabel appears in the Messianic lineage of David in the genealogies of both Joseph and Mary.)